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   2017| January-February  | Volume 30 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 10, 2017

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Neuropathogenesis by Chandipura virus: An acute encephalitis syndrome in India
Sourish Ghosh, Anirban Basu
January-February 2017, 30(1):21-25
PMID:28731002
Chandipura virus (CHPV) has been contributing to the rising number of premature deaths due to acute encephalitis syndrome for over a decade in India. CHPV belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae. Neuropathogenesis of CHPV has been well established but the exact route of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and the triggering factor for neuronal death are still unknown. Rabies virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, which are related closely to CHPV, enter the CNS retrogradely from peripheral or olfactory neurons. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier has also been connoted in the entry of CHPV into the CNS. CHPV upon entering the neurons triggers cellular stress factors and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The stress granules produced in response to cellular stress have been implicated in viral replication and ROS generation, which stimulates neuronal death. Both these phenomena cohesively explain the neuropathogenesis and neurodegeneration following CHPV infection.
  4,223 608 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Economic and social impact of out-of-pocket expenditure on households of patients attending public hospitals
Vikas Bajpai, Namrata Singh, Hardik Sardana, Sanjana Kumari, Beth Vettiyil, Anoop Saraya
January-February 2017, 30(1):15-20
PMID:28731001
Background. We aimed to generate evidence on the social and economic impact of out-of-pocket expenses incurred by households on illness. Methods. We did a hospital-based cross-sectional study including a convenience sample of 374 inpatients and outpatients. Results. The median illness expenditure was the same (₹62 500) for inpatients and outpatients. Of all respondents, 51.3% among the rural and 65.5% among the urban patients were employed before illness, but after illness only 24.4% among the rural and 23.4% among the urban patients remained in employment. The proportion of rural households of different socioeconomic categories that experienced decrease in expenditure on food, education and health, and those who had to sell land or cattle, and the education of whose children suffered was statistically significant. The proportion of indebted families in different socioeconomic classes was also statistically significant among both rural and urban patients. The lowest socioeconomic strata depended mostly upon the financial support of their friends to tide over the financial crisis of an illness. Conclusion. Our study shows that out-of-pocket expenses on healthcare are a burden not only for the poor but also the middle classes.
  3,157 567 -
MEDICAL EDUCATION
Preparing medical students with congenital colour vision deficiency for safe practice
Rajat Dhingra, Jolly Rohatgi, Upreet Dhaliwal
January-February 2017, 30(1):30-35
PMID:28731005
Background. Colour vision of candidates is tested in many medical colleges in India at the time of admission to undergraduate courses; however, there are no guidelines, and therefore no counselling, on how students with congenital colour vision deficiency (CCVD) should negotiate the medical course, and how best they can practise safely after graduation. Problems in interpreting coloured signs may lead to misdiagnosis. This study aimed to explore difficulties during clinical work that requires colour discrimination, and to offer suggestions on safe practice based on the findings and a review of the literature. Methods. We did a cross-sectional study after obtaining institutional ethical clearance and written informed consent. Thirty volunteer medical students with CCVD (≥3 errors on Ishihara chart) were matched with 30 volunteers from their own batch who made no errors. All participants interpreted colour-dependent clinical and laboratory photographs. Results. Students with CCVD made more errors (range 5–26; mean [SD] 13.17 [5.873] out of 75 items in 35 colour-dependent photographs) than colour-normal students (range 2–13; mean [SD] 5.53 [3.037], p<0.001). The nature of the errors suggested that medical students with CCVD could have problems in learning histology, pathology, haematology, microbiology, dermatology, paediatrics, medicine, biochemistry and during ophthalmoscopy. Conclusions. Screening at the time of admission will make students aware of their CCVD status and, through conscious practice thereafter, they may understand their limitations. Faculty could guide and prepare such students for safe practice.
  3,110 313 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia: Profile of patients in a tertiary care institution
Rahul Rajeev, Bhuwan Giri, Lok Prakash Choudhary, Rajeev Kumar
January-February 2017, 30(1):7-10
PMID:28730999
Background. Medical therapy is widely used for managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and has made an impact on the profile of patients who ultimately undergo surgery. This changing profile may impact outcomes of surgery and associated complications. To assess the impact of medical management, we evaluated the profile of patients who had surgery for BPH at our institution. Methods. A retrospective chart-review was performed of patient demographics, indications for surgery, preoperative comorbid conditions and postoperative course in patients who underwent surgery for BPH over a 5-year period. The data were analysed for demographic trends in comparison with historical cohorts. Results. A total of 327 patients underwent surgery for BPH between 2008 and 2012. Their mean age was 66.4 years, the mean prostate gland weight was 59.2 g and the mean duration of symptoms was 35.3 months; 34% had a prostate gland weight of >60 g; 1 59 (48.6%) patients had an absolute indication for surgery; 139 (42.5%) of these were catheterized and 6.1% of patients presented with azotaemia or upper tract changes without urinary retention. Conclusions. In comparison with historical cohorts, more patients are undergoing surgery for absolute indications including retention of urine and hydroureteronephrosis. However, the patients are younger, they have fewer comorbid conditions and have a similar rate of complications after the procedure.
  2,858 348 -
EDITORIAL
Identifying Predatory or Pseudo-journals
Christine Laine, Margaret Winker
January-February 2017, 30(1):1-6
PMID:28730998
  2,827 358 -
SELECTED SUMMARIES
Early mobilization in surgical ICU: Not a chimera anymore?
Vikram Kate, Mohsina Subair
January-February 2017, 30(1):28-29
PMID:28731004
  1,463 393 -
SPEAKING FOR OURSELVES
Research in India
AC Anand
January-February 2017, 30(1):39-42
PMID:28731007
  1,455 235 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Appropriateness-based reimbursement of elective invasive coronary procedures in low- and middle-income countries: Preliminary assessment of feasibility in India
Ganesan Karthikeyan, Umesh Shirodkar, Meeta Rajiv Lochan, Stephen Birch
January-February 2017, 30(1):11-14
PMID:28731000
Background. Elective coronary interventional procedures are often overused and sometimes inappropriately used. The incentives for overuse are greater in low- and middle-income countries, where much of healthcare is provided by poorly regulated, fee-for-service systems. Overuse and inappropriate use increase healthcare costs and are potentially harmful to patients. Linking appropriate use of elective procedures to their reimbursement might deter overuse. Methods. We explored the feasibility of introducing appropriateness criteria as a precondition to settling reimbursement claims in a publicly funded health insurance scheme in Maharashtra, India. Clinical algorithms were developed from the current best-practice criteria and used to determine appropriateness at the time of obtaining pre-authorization for elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries. The number of PCIs as a proportion of the total number of procedures reimbursed under the scheme was the primary outcome measure. This proportion was compared for 1-year periods before and after implementation of appropriateness-based reimbursement, using the chi-square test. Comparisons were also made separately for public and private hospitals. The change in the proportion of CABG surgeries over the same time periods was used as a comparator (as they are less subject to inappropriate use). Results. The insurance scheme provided cover to a population of 20 424 585 (18.2% of the population of Maharashtra) in 8 districts, through 106 hospitals (73 private and 33 public). There was a 12.3% (95% CI 8.9%–15.5%, p=0.0001) reduction in the proportion of PCIs performed in the 1-year period after the introduction of appropriateness-based reimbursement. The reduction was similar for public and private hospitals. There was no significant change in the proportion of CABG surgeries (2.3% v. 2.2%, p=0.20). At current rates, use of appropriateness-based reimbursement would result in approximately 783 (95% CI 483–1099) less PCIs with potential annual savings of about ₹ 57 million (US$ 0.93 million; 95% CI 0.57-1.3) to the government scheme. Conclusions. It seems feasible to implement an appropriateness-based system for reimbursement of elective coronary interventional procedures in a government-funded health insurance scheme in a developing country. This potentially cost-saving approach may reduce inappropriate use.
  1,087 299 -
IMAGES IN MEDICINE
Interlesional 'flip-flop' between 68Ga-DOTATATE and FDG-PET/CT in thyroglobulin-elevated negative iodine scintigraphy (TENIS) syndrome
Sandip Basu, Ashwini Kalshetty, Preeti Fargose
January-February 2017, 30(1):48-48
PMID:28731009
  1,109 236 -
SELECTED SUMMARIES
Consolidation chemotherapy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer: When, in whom and how much?
Bivas Biswas, Deepak Dabkara, Sandip Ganguly, E Prasad
January-February 2017, 30(1):26-27
PMID:28731003
  1,095 239 -
LETTER FROM MUMBAI
Letter from Mumbai
Sunil K Pandya
January-February 2017, 30(1):43-45
PMID:28731008
  1,167 161 -
SPEAKING FOR OURSELVES
Fifth Dr Ida S. Scudder Humanitarian Oration*
K Srinath Reddy
January-February 2017, 30(1):36-38
PMID:28731006
  1,002 150 -
BOOK REVIEWS
Consciousness Quest: Where East meets West
Bichitra Patra, Pratap Sharan
January-February 2017, 30(1):46-47
  850 121 -
Circulating tumor cells: Advances in basic science and clinical applications
Sudeep Gupta
January-February 2017, 30(1):46-46
  730 114 -
MASALA
Masala

January-February 2017, 30(1):50-50
  575 140 -
NEWS FROM HERE AND THERE
News from here and there

January-February 2017, 30(1):49-49
PMID:28731010
  560 111 -
ERRATUM
Erratum
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January-February 2017, 30(1):49-49
PMID:28731011
  492 89 -