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   2019| July-August  | Volume 32 | Issue 4  
    Online since August 1, 2020

 
 
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SELECTED SUMMARIES
The checklist manifesto revisited
Jonathan Powell, Rachna Jain, Anika Juneja
July-August 2019, 32(4):232-234
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291308  PMID:32769246
  4,991 128 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Decreasing medication errors in four intensive care units of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India using a sensitization programme
Anbarasan Mohan, S Manikandan, TS Ravikumar, Gitanjali Batmanabane
July-August 2019, 32(4):207-212
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291294  PMID:32769240
Background. Medication errors have an adverse impact on the healthcare system by increasing patient morbidity and mortality. They are preventable, and educational or technology-based interventions are needed to reduce their prevalence and improve medication safety. We aimed to study the impact of a sensitization programme and a blame-free reporting tool for doctors and nurses on the prevalence and reporting of medication errors in the intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods. This prospective interventional study was conducted in the ICUs of cardiology, medicine, paediatrics and neonatology. Baseline medication errors were detected by prescription order review and direct observation of administration of medication for 30 days. A sensitization programme was conducted for doctors and nurses in these ICUs, the results were discussed, and a blame-free medication error reporting tool was introduced. Medication charts were modified to remove the transcription process in the cardiology and paediatrics ICUs. The follow-up study was conducted for 30 days in each ICU to monitor the impact of the sensitization programme. Results. The prevalence of medication errors was found to be 334.1/1000 patient observation days. Prescription errors were the most common types of errors at 129.1/1000 patient observation days. The interventions significantly reduced the error rate in all four ICUs. The overall number of prescriptions with errors was reduced from 9.1% (177/1944) to 3.5% (48/1373) and no medication error was reported using the tool. Conclusion. The sensitization programme on medication errors for doctors and nurses may be effective in improving medication safety. The impact was more pronounced in prescription errors. Reporting of medication errors did not improve in this study despite the introduction of a blame-free reporting tool.
  1,902 343 -
EDITORIAL
Non-communicable diseases from a public health perspective
KS Jacob
July-August 2019, 32(4):193-196
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.287406  PMID:32769237
  1,836 313 -
CORRESPONDENCE
Comment on Indian healthcare at the crossroads
Sunil Pandya
July-August 2019, 32(4):254-254
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.274734  PMID:32769258
  1,837 188 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Slow parasite clearance, absent K13-propeller gene polymorphisms and adequate artesunate levels among patients with malaria: A pilot study from southern India
T Angel Miraclin, Binu Susan Mathew, Joy John Mammen, Shaji V Ramachandran, Suresh Kumar, Souvik Bhattacharjee, Thambu David Sudarsanam, Sowmya Sathyendra, K Paul Prabhakar Abhilash, Vishalakshi Jayaseelan, Priscilla Rupali
July-August 2019, 32(4):200-206
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291292  PMID:32769239
Background. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is widely used in India and many generic preparations are available. Delayed response has been reported, suggesting inadequate response to artesunate (AS) or genotypic resistance. We designed a prospective observational study to assess the therapeutic response, elaborate pharmacokinetics of AS and identify Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13 (pfk13) propeller gene polymorphisms among hospitalized Indian patients with severe malaria. Methods. We collected blood samples from adult patients with severe P. falciparum or mixed (P. falciparum and P. vivax) malaria on ACT. We calculated the parasite clearance (CL) half-life using the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) online parasite clearance estimator (PCE). We used the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrophoto-metry method for simultaneous quantification of AS and dihydroartemisinin. We genotyped longitudinally archived DNA samples obtained pre-treatment (day 0) to study the point mutations in the pfk13 propeller domain. Results. A total of 54 patients with malaria were included, with a majority fulfilling the definitions of severe malaria. The median parasite CL slope half-life was estimated to be 6.44 hours (interquartile range 4.79–10.24). AS pharmacokinetics, assessed in 17 patients, were found to be similar in the groups with rapid (<48 hours) and slow CL (>48 hours) of parasites. No known mutations associated with artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia were observed in our study participants. Conclusions. Slow parasite CL was seen with a high parasite burden without genotypic evidence of AS resistance. There is a need to standardize definitions of therapeutic efficacy of AS in cases of severe malaria.
  1,341 290 -
MEDICAL EDUCATION
Cognitive style assessment among medical students: A step towards achieving meta-cognitive integration in medical education
Bhalendu Suryakant Vaishnav, Smruti Bhalendu Vaishnav, Mahendra Chotaliya, Digeesha Bathwar, Somashekhar Nimbalkar
July-August 2019, 32(4):235-238
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291298  PMID:32769247
Background. Knowledge of cognition and its regulation are important meta-cognitive activities, which are crucial for enhancement of learning. Their explicit teaching is meaningful and necessary yet seldom undertaken systematically in medical education programmes. Methods. We aimed to identify the cognitive styles using the Alert Scale of Cognitive Style among our undergraduate students. Students were also sensitized about different cognitive styles, their implications in strategic learning and the importance of meta-cognitive approach in education. Feedback from students was obtained to understand their awareness, perspectives and relevance of meta-cognitive concepts. Results. The intervention enhanced awareness of students about their own cognitive style and its implications to learning processes. The middle brain cognitive style was the most common (51.2%), followed by the right and the left brain cognitive styles (29.5% and 19.4%, respectively). A significant shift from the left towards the middle or the right cognitive style was observed in clinical years. No significant association was observed between a cognitive style and various variables such as age, gender and handedness. Conclusion. Incorporation of meta-cognitive learning practices in medical education offers a basis for enhancing classroom teaching, thereby making it learner-centric. The study helped students in identifying the way they process information and in identifying their preferred methods of assimilating knowledge. Identification of cognitive diversity is a primary pedagogic act for improving competence in learning. Meta-cognitive skills can be harnessed to bring about consonance of the left, right and middle brain cognitive styles to achieve better learning outcomes.
  1,401 172 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Balanced crystalloids in the acutely ill patient
Samir Samal, Shakti Bedanta Mishra, Banani Poddar
July-August 2019, 32(4):218-229
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291297  PMID:32769243
Administration of intravenous fluids is the most common therapy given to patients admitted to a hospital. Evidence suggests that the use of normal saline (NS) in large quantities is not without adverse effects. Balanced salt solutions (BSS) contain bicarbonate or one of its precursors that act as a buffer, and the electrolyte composition resembles that of plasma. We reviewed studies across different setups such as intensive care units (ICUs), major surgeries, renal transplants and emergency departments to identify the effect(s) of NS and to find evidence favouring the use of BSS over NS. The use of NS is strongly associated with hyperchloraemic acidosis in almost all the studies. In the largest and latest trial in ICUs, it was found that higher chloride levels were associated with renal injury. No significant difference was found in mortality in any of the trials. In surgical patients, studies found only transient hyperchloraemia and increase in the base deficit in patients receiving NS. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses did not find any significant differences in adverse outcomes such as the need for renal replacement therapy or mortality with the use of saline; however, blood chloride levels were consistently higher with saline compared to BSS. There is a need for larger trials with better methodology to determine if the physiological benefits of BSS translate into better clinical outcomes.
  1,236 245 -
SHORT REPORT
Prothrombin G20210A polymorphism in patients with venous and cryptogenic arterial strokes among ethnic groups in south and north India
B.S.B. Salomi, Christhunesa Soundararajan Christudass, Sanjith Aaron, Vijay Prakash Turaka
July-August 2019, 32(4):213-215
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291290  PMID:32769241
Background. Prothrombin (PT) G20210A is one of the genetic polymorphisms associated with thrombophilia. Studies show a low prevalence for this polymorphism in Asian populations with only one subject reported from India. We studied the prevalence and association of this polymorphism in patients with arterial and venous strokes and their matched controls in south and north India. Methods. We recruited patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (mean age 37.2 years) and cryptogenic ischaemic stroke (mean age 36.7 years), and age- and sex-matched controls (mean age 37.6 years) from south and north India. Genotyping was carried out using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and the prevalence of the variants among the patients and controls was compared. Results. The heterozygous allele of the polymorphism was detected in both groups with significantly higher prevalence among north Indians (5/154; 3.2%) compared with south Indians (4/516; 0.8%; p = 0.026). Thrombosis as a manifestation of this polymorphism was more among north Indians with 4/82 (4.9%) of patients with ischaemic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis having this polymorphism compared with south Indian patients 1/72 (1.4%), p = 0.003. Conclusion. PT G20210A is prevalent in India, especially among those from north India. Its role in predisposition to thrombosis needs to be studied further along with other known risk factors.
  1,185 197 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Burden of poisoning on a critical care unit in southern India
Rakul Nambiar, Dalus Dae, S Anjali
July-August 2019, 32(4):197-199
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291291  PMID:32769238
Background. Poisoning inflicts a considerable economic cost on the health sector. Few cases of poisoning may require intensive management in a critical care unit and thus add to the financial burden. In this study, our primary objective was to analyse the financial burden of poisoning on critical care facilities and the secondary objective was to analyse the critical care needs and treatment outcomes of patients with poisoning. Methods. We did this retrospective study of patients admitted with poisoning in the critical care unit of Government Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (12- bedded critical care unit of 2500-bedded medical college hospital) from January 2011 to December 2013. Patients <13 years of age were excluded. Cost was estimated using the hospital expenditure data. Results. A total of 118 patients, comprising 2.5% of the total critical care unit admissions, were included in the study. The average cost of providing critical care for cases of poisoning was ₹367 333 per annum. Organophosphorus poison was the most common agent (33.9%) with the highest cost per admission of approximately ₹1 8 500. The highest number of deaths was due to phosphide poisoning with a case fatality rate of 83%. Conclusions. Poisoning imposes a considerable burden on the limited critical care services. Organophosphorus was the most common substance consumed for poisoning and it led to the highest expenditure per admission.
  930 239 -
SELECTED SUMMARIES
Adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer: Are we over-treating patients?
Abhenil Mittal, Atul Batra
July-August 2019, 32(4):230-231
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291305  PMID:32769244
  826 165 -
HISTORY OF MEDICINE
A pioneer of maternal health: Jerusha Jhirad, 1890–1983
Mridula Ramanna
July-August 2019, 32(4):243-246
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291309  PMID:32769250
  764 121 -
IMAGES IN MEDICINE
Adermatoglyphia
Jamal Alruwaili, Abdul Hai
July-August 2019, 32(4):253-253
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291296  PMID:32769257
  731 140 -
CLINICAL CASE REPORT
Ventricular bigeminy in enteric fever
Madhu Kaushal, Priyanka Tolani, Navneet Kumar, Akash Chopda
July-August 2019, 32(4):216-217
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291293  PMID:32769242
Salmonella infection causes a wide range of intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations as well as a lifetime carrier state. Untreated patients may develop complications, which can be life-threatening. Electrocardiogram (ECG) changes are a common occurrence in enteric fever and may be helpful in predicting myocarditis. Common ECG changes are decreased amplitude of QRS complexes, QTc prolongation and right bundle branch block. Ventricular bigeminy in enteric fever is a rare phenomenon. We report its occurrence in a patient.
  726 139 -
MEDICINE AND SOCIETY
Establishment of a tele-evidence facility at the post graduate institute of medical education and research, Chandigarh: A unique initiative
Pankaj Arora, Anil K Gupta, Shweta Talati
July-August 2019, 32(4):239-241
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291299  PMID:32769248
Doctors are duty bound to assist the delivery of justice by providing expert opinion/evidence in a court of law. However, the time spent in doing so comes at the cost of patient care. The healthcare sector and the judiciary are seized of the matter, and the use of technology as an avenue to ease the process is desirable. Tele-evidence or testimony through video conference can be that breakthrough. The Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, has institutionalized the mechanism of tele-evidence with the concurrence of the High Court of Punjab and Haryana. This was made possible after many permutations and combinations were tried, because the existing information technology infrastructure of the stakeholders was not compatible. The desired solution was achieved, and other institutions working to establish similar facilities can learn from the experience of PGIMER to achieve faster results.
  649 135 -
IMAGES IN MEDICINE
Lenticular corona: Aura of the microspherophakic lens
Brijesh Takkar, Sudarshan Khokhar, Anubha Rathi, Nripen Gaur, Esha Agarwal
July-August 2019, 32(4):252-252
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291302  PMID:32769256
  662 120 -
CORRESPONDENCE
A universal manuscript for all medical journals
Sanjay A Pai, Madhukar Pai
July-August 2019, 32(4):254-254
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291304  PMID:32769259
  668 105 -
SELECTED SUMMARIES
Evidence on the contribution of body mass index to mortality: What does this mean for India?
Lalit Dandona
July-August 2019, 32(4):231-232
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291307  PMID:32769245
  565 122 -
SPEAKING FOR MYSELF
Doctors’ club: An experiment in education
BC Rao
July-August 2019, 32(4):242-242
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291300  PMID:32769249
  509 109 2
BOOK REVIEWS
The amazing language of medicine
Sanjay A Pai
July-August 2019, 32(4):249-249
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291301  PMID:32769252
  430 95 -
LETTER FROM CHENNAI
Letter from Chennai
MK Mani
July-August 2019, 32(4):247-248
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291303  PMID:32769251
  432 89 -
BOOK REVIEWS
Autopsy practices
Sanjay A Pai
July-August 2019, 32(4):250-250
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291310  PMID:32769254
  365 104 -
Ethics in competitive research
Nithya Gogtay
July-August 2019, 32(4):249-250
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291312  PMID:32769253
  389 61 -
FILM REVIEW
Film review
Savitri Das Sinha
July-August 2019, 32(4):251-251
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291306  PMID:32769255
  347 69 -
NEWS FROM HERE AND THERE
News from here and there

July-August 2019, 32(4):255-256
DOI:10.4103/0970-258X.291311  
  304 84 -